- The international portal of the Shinjinbukan Foundation



Home > Learning Resources > Ryūkyū Martial Arts / Dictionary: "O"



Budō Jiten − Martial Arts Dictionary

This dictionary is the result of my personal research to develop a martial arts vocabulary based on the living traditions of Ti, as taught by my teacher Onaga Yoshimitsu Kaichō at the Shinjinbukan School. Unauthorized reproduction, translation into other languages or sale of these materials constitutes a copyright violation.

Written by Jimmy Mora

Search Alphabetically:

Search by Topic:





Glossary Category:  Budō/General Terms

Lit. Sash, belt, obi, zone, region.  This term refers to the belts or sashes worn in different martial arts.  According to tradition, the obi should never be washed.  The junior ranks or junior belts are indicated by different colors: yellow, green or brown, which may vary depending on the school or federation.  However, all ranks above Sho Dan wear black belts.



okutsu dachi

Glossary Category:  Okinawa Karate Dō/Tachikata , Shinjinbukan/Syllabus

Lit. Right Leaning Stance.  In the Shinjinbukan School, Okutsu dachi is defined as a Zenkutsu dachi (front stance), with the body orientated to the right.  Okutsu dachi works together with Sakutsu dachi as a set by rotating from the body's center axis.  It is commonly used for basic combinations of uke, tsuki and keri drills. 
See zenkutsu dachi , kokutsu dachi , sakutsu dachi



ohayō  (alt. Ohayo, Ohayou)   

Glossary Category:  Nihongo/Basics

Lit. Good morning.  This is an informal greeting used among friends. 



ohayō Gozaimasu  (alt. Ohayo Gozaimasu, Ohayou Gozaimasu)   

Glossary Category:  Nihongo/Basics

Lit. Good morning.  This is the formal greeting used in the morning. 



oi tsuki

Glossary Category:  Okinawa Karate Dō/Techniques

Lit. Long hand strike.  The striking arm and the most forward foot are on the same side.  For example, left hand strike while standing with the left foot forward.




Glossary Category:  Uchinā/Locations

Lit. Open sea straw rope or cord.  Okinawa Island or Okinawa Shima is the largest of the Ryūkyū Islands.  In ancient times these islands were known as the Ryukyu Kingdom.  For several centuries, as a tributary State to China, it prospered from trade between Japan, China, Korea, and Southeast Asia.  In the 17th century the Japanese Satsuma clan invaded Okinawa, and by 1879 it was made a Japanese prefecture.  Since then many efforts were made to assimilate Okinawan population as Japanese. 

By the beginning of the 20th century, Okinawans still remained culturally different from the mainland Japanese population.  Okinawa was the site of the last battle of World War II, and it remained under U.S. administration until 1972, when it was returned to Japan.  However, the U.S. still maintains military bases and personnel stationed in Okinawa.  In spite of so many external influences, Okinawa has developed and maintained its own unique culture with distinct traditions, language, cuisine, religion, arts, etc. 
See Okinawa Ken , Okinawa Sen , Ryūkyū , Uchinā



Okinawa Karate Dō

Glossary Category:  Okinawa Karate Dō/Ryūha

Lit. The way of the Empty hand.  Karate is a Martial Art, which originated in Okinawa, Japan, hundreds of years ago.  It then spread to mainland Japan and the rest of the world. Nowadays, there are many types of Karate: Okinawan Karate, Japanese Karate, Korean Karate, Olympic sports Karate, free-style Karate, etc...

What are the differences between Okinawan and Japanese Karate?
Okinawan Karate was first introduced to mainland Japan in 1917.  This also became their departure point.  The cultural and technical differences between them influenced their development in entirely different directions.  Nowadays, there are hundreds of styles of Karate in Okinawa & mainland Japan.

The main styles of Okinawan Karate are:
  — Shōrin Ryū, with three main lineages: Kobayashi Ryū, Shōrinji Ryū and Matsubayashi Ryū
  — Gōjū Ryū
  — Uechi Ryū. 
See Karate , Karate Dō , ryūha , Okinawa , Okinawa Ken , Ryūkyū , Shōrin Ryū (1) , Shōrin Ryū (2)
Shōrin Ryū (3) , Shōrinji Ryū , Gōjū Ryū , Uechi Ryū



Okinawa Ken

Glossary Category:  Uchinā/Locations

Lit. Okinawa Prefecture.  It is Japan's southernmost possession and its 47th prefecture, also known as the Ryūkyū archipelago.  Its capital is Naha City.  It stretches from mainland Japan to Taiwan over 1,000 km.  It consists of 161 islands, 44 inhabited and 117 uninhabited, divided into three major island groups:
Okinawa Honto — Okinawa main island
Okinawa Shoto — The smaller islands around Okinawa Honto
Miyako Retto — All islands around and including Miyako, Yaeyama and Ishigaki

Okinawa’s main industry, tourism, caters towards Japanese from mainland, Chinese and Taiwanese.  It is Japan’s only prefecture with subtropical weather averaging 22.4°C or 72.3°F.  Even during winter it never goes below 10°C or 50°F.  Snorkeling and scuba diving are very popular since Okinawa has one of the world’s most beautiful coral reefs full of marine wildlife. 
See Okinawa , Okinawa Sen



Okinawa Kobudō  (alt. Okinawa Kobudou, Okinawa Kobudo)   

Glossary Category:  Kobudō

The Okinawan weapons system founded by Matayoshi Shinkō (1888 — 1947) and continued by his son Matayoshi Shinpo (1921 — 1997).
See Kobudō , Kobujutsu



Okinawa no Shīsā

Glossary Category:  Uchinā/Culture

The Shīsā or "Shishi" are the traditional Okinawan statues similar to a guardian dog or lion, which are considered to be protectors from evils spirits.  They are often found in pairs as decorations for rooftops, large gates or homes.  Traditionally, if the Shīsā are found in pairs, the left one has a closed mouth, and the right one has an open mouth. 
See Ryūkyū , Uchinā , Shīsā , Shīshī



Okinawa Sen

Glossary Category:  Uchinā/Culture

Lit. The Battle of Okinawa.  The site of the last battle of World War II, also considered the bloodiest battle of the Pacific campaign and its largest amphibious operation.  The battle lasted from March 26, 1945, to early September.  More people died during the Battle of Okinawa than in the two atomic bombs used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki:
— Over 100,000 Okinawan civilians
— Over 107,000 Japanese and Okinawan conscripts
— Over 14,000 American soldiers, sailors and marines
— Over 36,000 wounded
— More than 26,000 non-battle casualties
— Over 500 British and Korean troops

In 1945, the cost of human lives during the Battle of Okinawa was used as an argument against invading mainland Japan, and it weighed heavily in the decision to use the two atomic bombs.  In 1995, the Okinawa Prefecture inaugurated the Peace Memorial Park where Heiwa no Ishiji or Cornerstone of Peace stands.  It is a large granite stone with the names of all those who perished during the Battle of Okinawa.  As of 2005, there were 239,801 names listed in the memorial.
See Okinawa , Okinawa Ken


オナガ ヨシミツ

Onaga Yoshimitsu

Glossary Category:  Okinawa Karate Dō/Masters , Shinjinbukan/Syllabus

The founder of the Shinjinbukan School.  Onaga Kaichō carries the oldest lineage of Karate.  He was the uchi deshi of Higa Yūchoku Dai Sensei for over thirty years at the Kyūdōkan Dōjō.  His teachings are based on Ti, the ancient Okinawan Martial Art, which preceded modern Karate. 
See Shinjinbukan , Tichikayā



Onaga no Ti

Glossary Category:  Shinjinbukan/System , Shinjinbukan/Philosophy

Lit. Onaga's Ti.  Onaga Yoshimitsu Kaichō is considered one of the last masters able to understand and teach Ti.  Onaga Kaichō has preserved and further developed many technical aspects of Okinawa Ti to such extent that he oftens describes his own Martial Art as Onaga no Ti.  This concept illustrates the personal nature of Ti, as well as the depth of the legacy given to his deshi (disciples) and mago deshi (deshi of a deshi) at the Shinjinbukan School.  The term Onaga no Ti was formally adopted in the official song of the Shinjinbukan School. 
See Ti , Ryūkyū no Ti , Ryūkyū Bushi , Onaga Yoshimitsu , Shinjinbukan , The Shinjinbukan Song , Deshi , Mago Deshi



onegai shimasu

Glossary Category:  Budō/General Terms , Shinjinbukan/Philosophy

Lit. If you please.  The implied meaning is: "please teach me".  This is an expression used by students when first entering a traditional Dōjō or before starting practice.  It is also used when making a request to a Sensei or senpai (senior student).




Glossary Category:  Nihongo/Miscellaneous

Mutual, reciprocal. 



otagai ni, rei

Glossary by Category:  Okinawa Karate Dō/Commands , Shinjinbukan/Philosophy

Lit. Mutual gratutude.  In a traditional Dōjō, the feeling of mutual gratitude between students is expressed by bowing towards each other.   In many martial arts schools, the teacher calls the command: "otagai ni, rei" at the beginning and end of each class, or before and after sparring or a drill. 

In the Shinjinbukan School, there are three bows made to begin and end a class.  During the third bow the teacher says "Otagai ni, rei" as everyone forms a circle to bow towards each other. 

At the beginning of class, during the 2nd and 3rd bow, the students say "onegai shimasu" (please teach me).  At the end of class, during the 2nd and 3rd bow, the students say "arigatō gozaimashita" (thank you for teaching me).  This ceremony is part of the Shinjinbukan etiquette or reigi sahō, and it is performed in a very natural way, without screaming or showing off.  This ceremony is as an expression of gratitude for all what we have learned. 
See Shōmen ni, rei , Sensei ni, rei , shūgō , onegai shimasu , arigatō gozaimashita


Search Alphabetically or By Topic            Dictionary Format            Bibliography            Rōmaji — Japanese with roman letters            Back To Top

Connect with the Shinjinbukan Network:  Twitter  Facebook  You Tube  Google+ - The International Portal of the Shinjinbukan Foundation.



Onaga Yoshimitsu Kaichō



Dōjō Kun

Ti no Tetsugaku

Reigi Sahō

Uchi Deshi

Shinjinbukan no Māku

Shinjinbukan Uta



Shinjinbukan Honbu Dōjō

Onaga Michiko Kanchō

Arakaki Shunichi Sensei

Miyahira Tōru Sensei



Shinjinbukan no Keitō

Shinjinbukai − Affiliate members

Deshi List



Shibu Directory

Our Shibu's Nafuda




Shinjinbukan New York Shibu Dōjō

Jimmy Mora − Shibu Chō




Shinjinbukan Tel Aviv Dōjō

Slava Grinshpun − Dōjō Chō




Shinjinbukan Riga Dōjō

Artis Pabriks − Shibu Chō


Shinjinbukan Lyon Dōjō

Jean-marie Perrier − Dōjō Chō

Ludovic Soler − Assistant Instructor


Shinjinbukan Augsburg Dōjō

Melanie Petrak − Dōjō Chō

Shinjinbukan Bruchsal Dōjō

Christian Streicher − Dōjō Chō





The Shinjinbukan System


History of Okinawa Karate Dō

Budō Jiten − Martial arts dictionary

Uchināguchi − Okinawan language

Frequently asked questions

Links − Recommended websites


Rōmaji − Hepburn system

Hiragana and Katakana

Kanji − Chinese characters






The Shinjinbukan Foundation

The Shinjinbukan Network

Contact us

Credits − Contributors

Copyright − Legal disclosure - The International Portal of the Shinjinbukan Foundation.

神人武館ニューヨーク支部道場、アメリカ合衆国 / Shinjinbukan New York Shibu Dōjō — United States
Ripley-Grier Studios, 939 8th Avenue, #307, New York, NY 10019, USA ∙ email: ∙ Private Dōjō: To visit please make an appointment.   more

Shibu Chō: Jimmy Mora, Renshi, Roku Dan (6th Dan) ∙ © 2016 Shinjinbukan Foundation - The International Portal of the Shinjinbukan Foundation. は、神人武館財団により無料で提供されております。このサイトの立場は、私個人では翁長良光会長のご指導について表現するものと理解しております。したがって、会長に代わって何かを主張するものではありません。もうひとつ、弟子の一人として是非付け加えたいですが、会長の人生や口述での伝統について掲載したいと望んでおります。ジミー・モラ is a free resource sponsored by the Shinjinbukan Foundation. The statements on this site represent my own personal understanding of Onaga Yoshimitsu Kaichō's teachings. Therefore, I do not claim to speak on his behalf. As one more of his students, I am eager to share his living and oral traditions. Jimmy Mora is a free resource sponsored by the Shinjinbukan Foundation to share Onaga Yoshimitsu Kaichō's Ti: a living and oral tradition.