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漢字 - 中国起源の文字の使用

Kanji − Chinese Characters used in Japanese language

The Japanese written language uses a great deal of Chinese characters called Kanji. However, each Kaji or Chinese symbol will have a very different pronounciation in Japanese than in Mandarin Chinese, or than in Cantonese or than in any other Asian language or dialect. In other words, each characters or symbol has an abstract meaning that could be pronounced in several ways.

In Japanese there are two types of pronounciation for each Kanji: On Yomi and Kun Yomi. And each Kanji could have several Kun Yomi and On Yomi pronounciatons. However, every Kanji is always listed by the its main On Yomi pronunciation, which is the official name of the Chinese character.

See the examples below:

Kanji Pronunciations

Every Kanji (Chinese character) has several pronunciations, divided into 3 categories:

音読み On Yomi,
訓読み Kun Yomi, or
熟語    Jukugo (Kanji Compound).

General Outline

Each Kanji Definition includes:
  — Kanji Radical & its pronunciation
  — Three Kanji Index Numbers: Nelson Classic, Halpern NJECD and Kodansha
  — Stroke Count & Joyo (the grade level at which each Kanji is required for learning)
  — Definitions/Pronunciations by On Yomi, Kun Yomi and Jukugo.

Kanji Index Numbers
There are multiple systems used to catalog Kanji. Every kanji dictionaries follows an specific catalog system. Listed below are examples of the most common systems used in the Englsh-speaking world.

Nelson Classic Index.
First Edition, 1962.
The Original Modern Reader's Japanese-English Character Dictionary by Andrew Nathaniel Nelson.

Halpern NJECD Index.
Published 1990-1993, 4th Edition. The New Japanese - English Character Dictionary (NJECD) by Jack Halpern.

Kodansha.
First Edition, 1991.
Kodansha Compact Kanji Guide Index.

Here are a few examples of how to analize each Kanji symbol:   

Ju — Kodansha 270

Ju — Kodansha 6

  

  

ジュ  Ju

Radical:  又 (また) / Stroke Count: 8 / Joyo grade: 3

Nelson Classic: 2826 / Halpern NJECD: 2421 / Kodansha: 270

Definition: Lit. Accept, take, get, catch, receive, undergo, answer the phone.

音読み On Yomi:

受   ジュ   Ju — Accept. 

熟語 Jukugo (Kanji Compound):

感受性   カンジュセイ   Kanjusei — Sensitivity.
受信   ジュシン   Jushin — Radio reception.
享受   キョウジュ   Kyouju — Reception, acceptance, enjoyment, being given.
傍受   ボウジュ   Bouju — Interception, monitoring, tapping.

訓読み Kun Yomi:

受かる   うかる   Ukaru — Pass an examination.
受ける   うける   Ukeru — To be given, receive, get, obtain, suffer, accept.
受け身   うけみ   Ukemi — Defensive fall, break fall, negative, passive voice.
受け入れる   うけいれる   Ukeireru — To accept, to receive.

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ジュ  Ju

Radical:  一 (いち) / Stroke Count: 3 / Joyo grade: 1

Nelson Classic: 798 / Halpern NJECD: 3404 / Kodansha: 6

Definition: Lit. Above, over, on top of, up, upper part, summit.

音読み On Yomi:

上   ジョウ   Jou — Governmental, imperial, top, best, high class.
上   ショウ   Shou — Upper part, government. 

熟語 Jukugo (Kanji Compound):

上段   ジョウダン   Upper section.
上半身   ジョウハンシン   Upper half of body, bust.
上体   ジョウダイ   Upper part of the of body.
上流   ジョウリュウ   Upper stream (river) upper classes.
立ち上がる   たちあがる   To stand up.
跳ね上がる   はねあがる   To jump up, to spring up.
跳び上がる   とびあがる   To spring, to jump up.
仕上げる   しあげる   To spring, to jump up.
仕上げる   しあげる   To finish up, to complete.
年上   としうえ   Older, senior.
胴上げ   どうあげ   Toss into the air.
目上   めうえ   One's superiors, seniors or elders.
上手   うわて   A superior player.
上着   うわぎ   Coat, tunic, jacket, outer wear.

訓読み Kun Yomi:

上   うえ   Ue — Above, over, on top of, up, upper part, summit.
上   かみ   Kami — Top, head, upper part, upper stream, emperor, a superior.
上   うわ   Uwa — Upper, upward, outer, surface, top.
上る   のぼる
上せる    のぼせる
上す    のぼす
上り    のぼり
上げる    あげる
上がる    あがる
上がり    あがり

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